White papers

The Orbs Position Paper

Orbs Position Paper
The Orbs Position Paper

Published Aug. 2017

Our position paper carves out the specific niche in the world of blockchain that the Orbs platform is focused on.

Read the paper

Working papers

Use of Ethereum as a Base Layer for PoS and PoA Platforms
Use of Ethereum as a Base Layer for PoS and PoA Platforms

Published Feb. 2019

We designed Orbs for applications that make use of multiple blockchain platforms (i.e. a hybrid system) because we believe such design makes more sense for complex, real-world use cases. In this paper, we would like to highlight some of the advantages and challenges hybrid designs can bring to infrastructure projects.

Read the paper

Blockchain Virtualization
Blockchain Virtualization: A Necessity for Real-World DApps

Published Aug. 2018

In this paper we explore how virtualization solved significant barriers in web application backends, analyze the barriers experienced with current-generation blockchain technology, and explain how virtualization technology offers the potential to overcome these barriers.

Read the paper

Eliminating the Security-vs-Scalability Dilemma: Randomized-Committee Consensus Protocols
Eliminating the Security-vs-Scalability Dilemma: Randomized-Committee Consensus Protocols

Published Aug. 2018

Current-generation blockchain protocols can determine their level of decentralization on an security-performance spectrum. A new family of consensus protocols enable the maximization of both security and throughput by employing novel cryptographic techniques for trustlessly generating random seeds in a group, without allowing any party to manipulate or predict the randomization results.

Read the paper

Eliminating the Security-vs-Scalability Dilemma: Randomized-Committee Consensus Protocols
Blockchain Architecture Considerations to Compete with PaaS/Cloud Services

Published Aug. 2018

In this document we present our findings, along with some architecture designs that may be used to create a blockchain platform that is competitive with centralized platforms. These aspects include cost structures, system performance when scaling up, avoidance of platform lock-ins to reduce technical risks, and completeness of the smart contracts environment.

Read the paper

Research papers

Helix Consensus Algorithm
Helix Consensus Algorithm

Published Apr. 2018

An introduction to Helix, a decentralized, scalable and fair consensus algorithm.

*A concise version of this paper is now in proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Network Protocols (ICNP ’18). For citations, please refer to the official IEEE page at https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8526804

Read the paper

Accelerating Decentralized Execution of Blockchain Transactions Towards Centralized Performance
Accelerating Decentralized Execution of Blockchain Transactions Towards Centralized Performance

Published Aug. 2018

To allow scalability, we suggest a decentralized execution model in which network nodes interact with a stronger accelerator.

Read the paper

Transaction ordering
Enforcing Fairness in Blockchain Transaction Ordering

Published May 2019

In this work, we propose a toolbox of techniques to enforce fair block selection for improved quality of service.

*A version of this paper is now in proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency, http://icbc2019.ieee-icbc.org/.

Read the paper

Bloom Filter
Bloom Filter with a False Positive Free Zone

Published Apr. 2018

A bloom filter is a probabilistic data structure for set representation with relatively low data storage use.

*This paper appeared at IEEE Infocom, April 2018 – https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8486415.

Read the paper

Token specifications

Orbs Proof of Stake Ecosystem Paper
Proof-of-Stake Ecosystem Model

Published March 2019

The Orbs Proof-of-Stake (PoS) ecosystem is the back bone of the Orbs network and the Universe that is being created. This document is provided for discussion purposes and presents the PoS architecture and model in its Year Zero genesis, implemented in V1.

Read the paper

Orbs Token Distribution

Published Apr. 2019

This document explains the use of the ORBS token, the total supply and distribution pools.

Read the paper